Minggu, Oktober 24, 2010


The stone age was a period of history which began in approximately 2 million B.C and lasted until 3000 B.C. Its name was derived from the stone tools and weapons that modern scientists found. This period was devided into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Ages. During the first period (2 million to 8000 B.C), the first hatchet and use of fire for heating and cooking were developed. As s result of the Ice Age, which evolved about I million years into the Paleolithic Age, people were forced to seek shelter in caves, wear clothing, and develop new tools.

During the Mesolithic Age (8000 to 6000 B.C.), people made crude pottery and the first fish hooks, took dogs hunting, and developed the bow and arrow, which were used until the fourteenth century A.D.

The Neolithic Age (6000 to 3000 B.C.) saw humankind domesticating sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle, being less nomadic than In previous eras, establishing permanent settlements, and creating governments.

1. Into how many periods was the stone age divided?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

2. In line 3, the word “derived”is closest in meaning to

A. Originated

B. Destroyed

C. Hallucinated

D. Discussed

3. Which of the following was developed earliest?

A. Fish hook

B. Hatchet

C. Bow and arrow

D. Pottery

4. Which of the following developments is not related to the conditions of the Ice Age?

A. Farming

B. Clothing

C. Living indoors

D. Using fire

5. The word “crude” in line 12 is closest in meaning to

A. Extravagant

B. Complex

C. Vulgar

D. Primitive

6. The author states that the stone age was so named because

A. It was very durable like stone

B. The tools and weapons were made of stone

C. There was little vegetation

D. The people lived in stone caves

7. In line 17, “nomadic” is closest in meaning to

A. Sedentary

B. Wandering

C. Primitive

D. Inquisitive

8. With what subject in the passage mainly concerned?

A. The Neolithic Age

B. The Paleolithic Age

C. The stone Age

D. The Ice Age

9. Which of the following best describes the Mesolithic age?

A. People were inventive

B. People stayed indoors all the time

C. People were warriors

D. People were crude

10. In line 17, the word “eras” is closest in meaning to

A. Families

B. Periods

C. Herds

D. Tools

Hot boning is an energy-saving technique for the meat processing industry. It has received significant attention in recent years when increased pressure for energy conservation has accentuated the need for more efficient methods of processing the bovine carcass. Cooling an entire carcass requires a considerable amount of refrigerated space, since bone and trimmable fat are cooled along with the muscle. It is also necessary to space the carcasses adequately in the refrigerated room for better air movement and prevention of microbial contamination, thus adding to the volume requirements for carcass clillers.

Conventional handling of meat involves holding the beef sides in the cooler for 24 to 36 hours before boning. Chilling in the traditional fashion is also associated with a loss of carcass weight ranging from 2 percent to 4 percent due to evaporation oe moisture from the meat tissue.

Early excision, or hot boning, of muscle prerigor followed by vacuum packaging has several potentional anvantages. By removing only the edible muscle and fat prerigor., refrigeration space and costs are minimized, boning labor is decreased, and storage yields increased. Because hot boning often results in the toughening of meat, a more recent approach, hot boning following electrical stimulation, has been used to reduce the necessary time or rigor mortis.

Some researchers have found this method beneficial in maintaining tender meat, while others have found that the meat also becomes tough after electrical stimulation.

11. The word “accentuated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to

A. De-emphasized

B. Speeded up

C. Caused

D. highlighted

12. All of the following are mentioned as drawbacks of the conventional method of boning except

A. Storage space requirements

B. Energy waste

C. Loss of carcass weight

D. Toughness of meat

13. In line 3, the word “pressure” is nearest in meaning to

A. Urgency

B. Weight

C. Flavor

D. Cooking texture

14. Hot boning is becoming very popular because

A. It causes meat to be very tender

B. It helps conserve energy and is less expensive than conventional methods

C. Meat tastes better when the bone is adequately seared along with the meat

D. It reduces the weight of the carcass

15. In line 11, “carcass chiller” is nearest in meaning to

A. A refrigerator for the animal body

B. A method of boning meat

C. Electrical stimulation of beef

D. Early excision

16. In line 17, “early excision” is closest in meaning to

A. Vacuum packaging

B. Hot boning

C. Carcass chilling

D. Electrical stimulation

17. The toughening of meat during hot boning has been combatted by

A. Following hot boning with electrical stimulation

B. Tenderizing the meat

C. Using electrical stimulation before hot boning

D. Removing only the edible muscle and fat prerigor

18. The word “bovine” in line 5 is nearest in meaning to

A. Cold

B. Electrically stimulated

C. Beef

D. Pork

19. The word “this” in line 25 refers to

A. Hot boning

B. Hot boning following electrical stimulation

C. Rigor mortis

D. Removing edible muscle and fat prerigor

20. In line 5, the word “carcass” is closest in meaning to

A. Deboned meat

B. Body

C. Refrigerator

D. fat

21. The word “considerable” in line 6 is closest in meaning to

A. Frigid

B. Kind

C. Lesser

D. Substantial

22. One reason it is recommended to remove bones before refrigerating is that

A. It makes the meat more tender

B. The bones are able to be used for other purposes

C. It increases chilling time

D. It saves cooling space by not refrigerating parts that will be discarded

23. The word “trimmable” in line 7 is nearest in meaning to

A. Unsaturated

B. Removable

C. Unhealthy

D. Chilable

In 1920, after some thirty-nine years of problems with disease, high costs, and politics, The Panama Canal was officially opened, finally linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by allowing ships to pass through the fifty-mile canal zone instead of travelling some seven thousand miles around Cape Horn. It takes a ship approximately eight hours to complete the trip through the canal and costs an everage of fifteen thousand dollars, one tenth of what it would cost an average ship to round the Horn. More than fifteen thousand ships pass through its locks each year.

The French initlated the project but sold their rights to the united States, which actually began the construction of the project. The latter will control it until the end of the twentieth century when Panama takes over its duties.

24. Who currently controls the Panama Canal?

A. France

B. United States

C. Panama

D. Canal Zone

25. The word “locks” in line 10 is closest in meaning to

A. Securities

B. Latches

C. Lakes

D. Canal gates

26. On the average, how much would it cost a ship to travel around Cape Horn?

A. $ I,500

B. $ 15,000

C. $ 150,000

D. $ 1.500.00

27. In what year was construction begun on the canal?

A. 1881

B. 1920

C. 1939

D. 1999


36. What conclusion can we draw about the ancient Greeks?

A. They were pacifists

B. They believed athletic events were important

C. They were very simple

D. They couldn’t count, so they used “Olympiads” for dates

37. What is the main idea of this passage?

A. Physical fitness was an integral part of the lives of the ancient Greeks

B. The Greeks severely punished those who didi not participate in physical fitness programs

C. The Greeks had always encouraged everyone to participate in the games

D. The Greeks had the games coincide with religious festivities so that they could go back to war when the games were over

38. In line 14, the word “deeds” is closest in meaning to

A. Accomplishments

B. Ancestors

C. Documents

D. property

39. Which of the following was ultimately required of all athletes competing in the Olympics?

A. They must have completed military service

B. They had to attend special training sessions

C. They had to be Greek males with no criminal record

D. They had to be very religious

40. The word “halted” in line 16 means most nearly the same as

A. Encouraged

B. Started

C. Curtailed

D. Fixed

41. What is an “Olympiad”?

A. The time it took to finish the games

B. The time between games

C. The time it took to finish a war

D. The time it took the athletes to train

Tampa, Florida, owes a great deal of its growth and prosperity to a Cuban cigar manufacturer named Vicente martinez Ybor. When civil war broke out in 1869, he was forced to flee his country, and he moved his business to south Florida. Sixteen years later, labor union problems in Key West caused him to seek a better location along the west coast of the state. He bought a forty-acre tract of land and made plans to set up his cigar factory on the site. This original sixteen-block stretch of land later expanded to one hundred acres near Tampa. This newly developed area was called Ybor City in his honor. Spanish, Italian, and Cuban immigrants flocked to the area as the demand for workers in the cigar factory increased. One fifth of the city’s twenty thousand resident enjoyed the high-paying jobs there. At the end of the 1800s, jose marti, a Cuban poet and freedom fighter, organized a revolution from Ybor City and managed to get considerable support for his movement. Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders” were stationed there during the Spanish-American War in 1898. Much of the prosperity of this region is due to Ybor’s cigar factory established more than one hundred years ago.

42. Where is Ybor City located?

A. South Florida

B. Cuba

C. West Florida

D. Marti

43. The word “flee” in line 4 means most nearly the same as

A. Escape

B. Return to

C. Fight

D. disembody

44. The word “seek” in line 6 is closest in meaning to

A. Purchase

B. Pursue

C. Elude

D. develop

45. Why will people probably continue to remember Ybor’s name?

A. He suffered a great deal

B. An area was named in his honor

C. He was a Cuban revolutionary

D. He was forced to flee his homeland

46. In line 12, the word “flocked” is closest in meaning to

A. Came in large numbers

B. Escaped hurriedly

C. Increased rapidly

D. Prospered greatly

47. In the early years, how many residents of Ybor City worked in the cigar factory

A. 4,000

B. 5,000

C. 10,000

D. 20,000

48. What is the best title for the passage?

A. The Spanish-American War

B. Cuban Contributions in the Development of Ybor City

C. Ybor’s Contribution to developing part of the Tampa Area

D. The Process of Cigar Manufacturing

49. In line 8, “site” is closest in meaning to

A. Location

B. View

C. Vision

D. Indebtedness

50. Who was Jose marti

A. A good friend of Ybor

B. One of Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders”

C. A Cuban writer who sought to free his country

D. A worker in the cigar factory

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